The intensity of the optical signal received by the optical receiving device needs to be within a certain range, and the optical power cannot be too strong or too weak. Otherwise, the device's life will be shortened or it will not work properly. The optical fiber attenuator is an optical passive device that can act on it to reduce the energy of the optical signal and attenuate the input optical power, so as to avoid the distortion of the optical receiver due to the super strong input optical power.
Optical fiber attenuators reduce optical power through absorption, reflection, diffusion, scattering, deflection, diffraction, dispersion, etc. The optical fiber attenuator is set to a working wavelength range that can absorb light energy. Within this range, it does not reflect light and reduces unnecessary return reflections.
Generally, technologies such as air isolation technology, displacement dislocation technology, attenuation fiber technology, and absorption glass method are used to make optical attenuators.
The attenuation range of the optical attenuator is 0-65dB. Among them, the attenuation power of the fixed optical fiber attenuator currently on the market is between 1 and 30 dB. A fixed fiber attenuator is a type of fiber attenuator that fixes the attenuation power at an attenuation value. Typically it is used in telecommunication networks, fiber optic test equipment, local area network (LAN), and cable television (CATV) systems.
There is also a variable optical attenuator. The attenuation level of the variable attenuator can be adjusted, for example, from 0.5 dB to 20 dB, or even 50 dB. Some variable attenuators have a very fine resolution, such as 0.1dB or even 0.01dB.
Mainly used in the optical distribution frame(ODF), optical fiber network system, high-speed optical fiber transmission system, cable television (CATV) system, long-distance trunk, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system, and optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM).
The fixed optical attenuator has a pigtail type, converter type. There are FC, SC, ST, LC, MU, and other interface types, which is convenient to use in daily cabling operation. Usually, a single optical attenuator has two interfaces, male and female, which can be male-female or female-female. The connector interface of the male head is generally used to be inserted on the receiver of the device or the adapter of the adapter panel, and the connector interface of the female head is used to connect the optical fiber jumper. Various types of fixed yin and yang fiber attenuators can be provided, with stable performance and reliable quality, and can meet the customized requirements of ST, SC, FC, MU, LC various connector interface types, and working wavelengths.
Among passive devices, fiber attenuators are widely used. The performance indicators to measure the optical attenuator mainly include attenuation, insertion loss, attenuation accuracy, return loss, and so on.